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When Was Stick Welding Invented?

Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), was invented in the year 1907 by a Russian named Bernardos Oscar. He developed a technique where he coated a metal electrode in a flux material that would protect the weld from impurities and provide a better bond. This method of welding quickly became popular due to its versatility and the fact that it could be used in almost any environment. Today, stick welding is still widely used in many industries and has become a cornerstone of the welding world.

Welcome to the world of welding! Have you ever wondered about the origins of stick welding? Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), has a fascinating history that dates back over a century. It was invented in the year 1907 by a Russian named Bernardos Oscar. He revolutionized the field of welding by coating a metal electrode in a flux material that would protect the weld from impurities and provide a better bond. Stick welding became very popular because of its versatility and the fact that it could be used in almost any environment. Today, it is still widely used in many industries and has become a cornerstone of the welding world.

Source carbrain.com

When Was Stick Welding Invented?

Origins of Welding

Welding is an ancient technique used to join two pieces of metal together. Archaeologists have found evidence of welding in the Bronze Age, where metals were heated and pounded together to create tools and weapons. In addition to this, the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans would use welding to create ornate metal objects, like jewelry.

Discovery and Development of Stick Welding

Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), first appeared in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1890, Russian scientist Nikolai Benardos proposed using an electric arc for welding, but it wasn’t until the early 1900s that SMAW was developed in its modern form. In 1907, Oscar Kjellberg, a Swedish engineer, patented the first version of the stick electrode, which is still used today.

The stick electrode is made up of a metal wire core with a flux coating. The flux coating creates a shield of gas around the weld pool as it melts, preventing oxidation and contamination. When an electric current passes through the electrode, an arc is created that melts the metal and fuses it together.

Advancements and Modern-Day Uses

Since its invention, stick welding has advanced dramatically with the help of modern technology. Welding machines have become more efficient and powerful, and specialized electrodes have been developed for specific tasks. For instance, nickel-based electrodes are used for welding steel, while aluminum-based electrodes are used for welding aluminum.

Stick welding is one of the most versatile and widely used welding techniques in the world. It can be used to join a range of materials, including steel, aluminum, and cast iron. Stick welding is commonly used in construction, shipbuilding, pipeline construction, manufacturing, and repair work.

In conclusion, stick welding has come a long way since its early beginnings in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This welding technique has become an essential part of many industries, and it has contributed significantly to building structures, machines, and vehicles that we use today. Thanks to the advancement in modern technology, stick welding will continue to evolve and remain relevant for years to come.

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The Importance of Stick Welding


Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), is a welding process that creates a permanent bond between metals. Unlike other welding techniques, stick welding creates a strong and durable bond that is able to withstand high stress and pressure, making it an ideal choice for construction and heavy equipment. The process involves striking a welding rod or electrode against the metal to be welded, creating an arc that melts the metal and the electrode, allowing them to fuse together. As the metal cools, it forms a strong bond that is resistant to impact and deformation. This makes stick welding an important technique in the construction of buildings, bridges, and other structures that require high strength and durability.


Stick welding is a relatively affordable welding technique compared to other forms of welding. It requires minimal equipment and can be done in almost any environment, making it a popular choice for field welding and repairs. The consumable electrodes used in stick welding are also affordable and widely available. Unlike other welding techniques that require specialized equipment and expensive shielding gases, stick welding offers an affordable and accessible option to achieve strong welds. The affordability of stick welding makes it an ideal choice for small-scale welding projects and DIY enthusiasts.


Stick welding is a versatile welding technique that can be used on a variety of metals, including cast iron, steel, and even some non-ferrous metals. It can also be used in windy or outdoor conditions, making it a convenient choice for welders working in remote locations. The welding rod or electrode used in stick welding can be adjusted to suit different types of metals and welding positions. This allows welders to use stick welding in a variety of applications, from basic repairs to complex constructions. Stick welding is also well-suited to welding thick materials, as the welding rod or electrode can penetrate deeper into the metal and create a strong bond.

Invention of Stick Welding

The origins of stick welding can be traced back to the late 1800s, when a Russian chemist named Nikolay Benardos developed a method to weld iron plates with an electric arc. However, the modern form of stick welding was first patented by Oscar Kjellberg in Sweden in 1907. Kjellberg’s innovation involved creating an electrode that was coated in a flux material that would shield the weld puddle from atmospheric contamination and stabilize the arc. This allowed welders to create more consistent and reliable welds, even in adverse conditions. The invention of stick welding revolutionized the welding industry and has remained a popular welding technique for over a century.

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In conclusion, stick welding is an important welding technique that offers durability, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. Its ability to produce strong and durable welds makes it an ideal choice for heavy construction and equipment, while its affordability and accessibility make it an attractive option for small-scale welding projects. With its wide range of applications and simple equipment requirements, stick welding is a valuable skill for welders and DIY enthusiasts alike.

The history of welding can be traced back as far as the Bronze Age. However, when it comes to the invention of stick welding, it was first developed in the early 1900s by Oscar Kjellberg.

When Was Stick Welding Invented?

Stick welding is one of the oldest and most widely used welding techniques in the world. It has been used in various forms for centuries, but the process as we know it today was developed in the late 1800s. Stick welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), was invented by a French electrical engineer named Auguste De Meritens in 1889.

De Meritens’ invention used a coated metallic electrode which was connected to an electric power supply. The electrode would create an electric arc with the metal being welded, melting it to form a union. This process soon became popular among welders because of its ease of use and reliability. Today, stick welding is still used for welding heavy materials, repairs, and maintenance in various industries, including construction, manufacturing, and automotive.

Equipment Needed for Stick Welding

To start stick welding, you will need the following equipment:

Welding Machine

A welding machine, also known as a welder, is a device that provides the electrical power to create the arc between the electrode and the metal workpiece. It is crucial to select the right welding machine for your needs. Many different types of welding machines are available, so research to find the right one for the job you’re doing.

Electrode Holder

Electrode holder, also known as a stinger, is a device used to hold the electrode in place during the welding process. The holder typically consists of an insulated handle, a jaw, and a cable that attaches to the welding machine. The electrode holder must be able to withstand heat and electricity that flows during welding.

Ground Clamp

The ground clamp, sometimes called an earth clamp, is a device that connects the welding machine to the metal being welded. It completes the circuit, allowing the electricity to flow through the workpiece, creating the arc.

Welding Electrodes

The welding electrode is a metal rod coated with a flux that melts during welding, creating a shield to protect the weld from oxygen and other gases. The electrodes come in different sizes for different applications, so make sure to use the right size for the job at hand.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Lastly, personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical component of stick welding, as it involves high heat and electrical currents. You will need a welding helmet, protective gloves, and appropriate clothing to minimize the risks of injury associated with stick welding.

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Preparing the Materials for Stick Welding

Before beginning to weld, you must prepare the materials by cleaning the metal surface. Dirt, rust, or grease may interfere with the formation of the welding arc, leading to poor quality welds.

Use a wire brush or sandpaper to remove any contaminants from the metal surface. Be sure to clean around the areas you plan to weld, including the backside of the joint. After cleaning, use a clamp to hold the pieces together to prevent shifting during welding.

Welding Technique for Stick Welding

Once you have your equipment set and your materials prepped, it’s time to begin welding. Here are some steps and tips to help you develop a smooth technique:

Starting the Arc

With everything in place, it’s time to strike an arc with the metal. In this process, you will start by placing the electrode against the metal. Move the stinger back slightly to create a small gap then tap the electrode against the metal to create a spark. Finally, move back a little to form the arc and start welding.

Positioning the Electrode

Positioning the electrode is essential for creating a quality weld. The correct position will vary depending on the metal you’re welding, but generally, you want the electrode and holder to be at a 15-degree angle to the workpiece.

Maintaining the Arc Distance

You should keep a consistent arc distance between the electrode and workpiece to produce a strong weld. This distance will depend on the size of the electrode and the thickness of the metal. Maintaining an appropriate arc distance can be challenging for beginners, but it is crucial for a quality job.

Moving the Electrode

Once you have started the arc and achieved the appropriate position, it’s time to move the electrode. Move it in a circular motion, creating a pool of molten metal. Pull the electrode along this molten pool slowly, taking the time to ensure an even weld.

Finishing the Weld

After completing the weld, let the metal cool before removing the clamps. Inspect the weld for any cracks or imperfections. You may also use a wire brush to clean any remaining flux and check that the entire area has been welded adequately.


Stick welding, while one of the oldest welding techniques, remains relevant to this day. De Meritens’ invention paved the way for the use of coated electrodes and helped create strong and reliable welds for heavy materials, maintenance, and repairs. Starting stick welding requires specific equipment, preparing the materials, and proper welding techniques. While it may take some practice, with the right preparation and process, anyone can learn how to stick weld confidently.

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